Afinal, carros elétricos são mesmo uma tendência para o futuro?

O mundo inteiro tem acompanhado uma enorme preocupação com a preservação do nosso planeta nos últimos anos. Temas como sustentabilidade, redução de poluentes e aquecimento global têm sido largamente discutidos e estudados, tudo visando uma forma de conciliar a indústria com os meios naturais.

Os carros também entram nessa questão, e os modelos elétricos vêm sendo apontados como o futuro para a produção automobilística. Mas eles realmente são a resposta? E como funcionam? Existe já a capacidade de produzir carros elétricos em grandes quantidades, e a um preço acessível, que irá atingir todas as camadas da população? Essas questões e outras vamos mostrar a seguir.

Funcionamento dos carros elétricos

Basicamente, um carro elétrico funciona por um regulador, que recebe a alimentação por um conjunto de baterias recarregáveis. As baterias geralmente são de chumbo ácido ou lítio, e produzem de 240 a 300 volts cc. Os primeiros modelos eram carros a gasolina que foram convertidos em elétricos, mas hoje já existem modelos totalmente concebidos para serem elétricos.

A autonomia desse carros vai de 80 a 200 quilômetros, mas existem projetos que alcançam 500 km sem necessidade de recarga. Essa, por sua vez, pode ser feita com tomada normal de 127/220 volts. Nesses modelos, um voltímetro entra no lugar do medidor de combustível, mostrando o quanto de carga ainda existe.

Vantagens x dificuldades

A maior vantagem de um carro elétrico é a emissão zero de poluentes, como CO2, e dos óxidos de nitrogênio, comparados com os carros movidos a álcool ou gasolina. A facilidade do manuseio também é um ponto positivo.

O que vai contra é que ainda não são produzidos veículos elétricos suficientes para se diminuir o impacto da poluição no mundo. Além disso, existem poucos postos de recarga para se atender aos usuários.

A Europa está mais avançada nessa questão, mas ainda não chegou a um modelo barato, fácil de produzir e que possa ser difundido no mundo todo. E esses carros ainda sofrem um pouco de resistência por parte do público.

Por exemplo, a Alemanha estipulou uma meta de possuir cerca de um milhão de carros elétricos nas suas ruas até 2020, mas hoje há 50 mil unidades circulando, praticamente não diminuindo em nada o impacto ambiental. Além disso, alguns componentes do motor e bateria ou são caros ou levam anos para se decompor, o que também gera um impacto na natureza.

Petróleo e suas reservas

Muito se investe em energias alternativas para veículos porque o petróleo é um bem não renovável. Segundo dados de um estudo feito pela British Petroleum, no ritmo em que estamos hoje, as reservas mundiais podem se esgotar em cinquenta anos. No caso das reservas dos Estados Unidos, os números são mais preocupantes, pois elas podem acabar em somente sete anos.

Apesar do aumento da tecnologia para tirar petróleo em bacias mais profundas (mais de sete mil metros de profundidade) o mundo necessita urgentemente de fontes alternativas para produção de combustíveis, pois em breve poderemos ver um colapso nessa área, além, é claro, do impacto ecológico que eles trazem.

A produção de carros elétricos vem aumentando cada vez mais, mas ainda é necessária uma busca por um carro, acessível a todos, que diminua os impactos dos combustíveis à base de petróleo no planeta. Gostou do conteúdo? Então não deixe de assinar nossa newsletter e fique sempre por dentro das novidades do blog!

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